Mississippi is one of the lowest-ranking states in the United States when it comes to health, education, development, and income measures. Agriculture and forestry are the main economic industries in Mississippi today, with the state producing more than half of the country's farm-raised catfish and being one of the top producers of sweet potatoes, cotton, and pulpwood. Other major industries in Mississippi include advanced manufacturing, public services, transportation, and health services. Mississippi is located almost entirely within the Gulf coastal plain and generally consists of lowland plains and low hills.
The rest of the state's northwest consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi alluvial plain. The highest point in Mississippi is Woodall Mountain at 807 feet above sea level, next to the Cumberland Plateau; the lowest is the Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate classification. Around 10,000 BC, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians arrived in what is now known as the southern United States. Southern Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers who hunted down megafauna that became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene.
In the Mississippi Delta, Native American settlements and agricultural fields developed on natural dikes, on higher ground near rivers. Native Americans developed extensive fields near their permanent villages. Along with other practices, they created some localized deforestation but did not alter the ecology of the Mississippi Delta as a whole. After thousands of years, succeeding cultures of the forest and Mississippi culture eras developed rich and complex agricultural societies in which surplus supported the development of specialized trades. Those of the Mississippi culture were the largest and most complex, built starting in 950 AD.
The villages had a commercial network that spanned from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast. Their great land movements expressed their cosmology of political and religious concepts and are still standing in the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Native American tribes descended from the Mississippi culture in the Southeast include the Chickasaw and Choctaw. Other tribes that inhabited the Mississippi Territory (and whose names were honored by local city settlers) include Natchez, Yazoo, and Biloxi. The first major European expedition to the territory that became Mississippi was that of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto who passed through northeastern part of the state in 1540 on his second expedition to New World. In April 1699, French colonists established Fort Maurepas (also known as Old Biloxi) near what is now Ocean Springs on Gulf Coast.
It was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. In 1716, French founded Natchez on Mississippi River (as Fort Rosalie) which became dominant city and trading post in area. The French called large territory New France; Spanish continued to claim part of Gulf Coast area (east of Mobile Bay) present-day South Alabama in addition to entire area present-day Florida. British took control French territory after French and Indian War. During colonial era European colonists imported enslaved Africans to work on cash crop plantations. Under French and Spanish rule a class free people color (gens de couleur libre) developed mostly multiracial descendants enslaved or free European men black women their mixed-race children.
European men often helped their multiracial children to educate themselves or get internships in trades sometimes they trusted them with property; often they freed mothers their children if they were enslaved as part employment contracts. With this social capital free people color became artisans sometimes educated merchants landlords forming third class among Europeans most enslaved Africans French Spanish settlements although not free community as large as city New Orleans Louisiana. After Great Britain's victory French Indian War (Seven Years' War) French handed over Mississippi area them under terms Treaty Paris (176). They also ceded their northern areas that were east Mississippi River including country Illinois Quebec. After Peace Paris (178) lower third Mississippi came under Spanish rule as part West Florida. In 1819 United States completed purchase West Florida all East Florida Adams—Onís Treaty 1822 both merged into Florida Territory. After American Revolution (1775-178) Great Britain ceded this area new United States America. The Mississippi Territory was organized on April 7 1798 from territory ceded by Georgia South Carolina United States.
Their original colonial charters theoretically extended west Pacific Ocean. Subsequently territory Mississippi was expanded twice to include disputed territory claimed both United States Spain. From 1800 to approximately 1830 United States purchased some land (Doak's Stand Treaty) from Native American tribes for new settlements by European Americans latter were mostly migrants from other southern states particularly Virginia North Carolina where soils were depleted. New settlers continued to invade Choctaw lands pressured federal government to expel Native Americans. On September 27 1830 Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty was signed between U. S.
UU. The Choctaws agreed to sell their traditional lands in Mississippi and Alabama in exchange for compensation and their transfer to reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). This allowed land to be sold to a European-American migrant settlement. Many slave owners brought enslaved African Americans with them or bought them through domestic slave trade especially New Orleans. Thanks to trade it is estimated that nearly million slaves were forcibly transported deep South including Mississippi in.